Orchidectomy, also known as orchiectomy or simply orchi, is the surgical removal of one or both testicles.

There are three types: simple, subcapsular, and inguinal.

The two most common reasons for the performance of simple orchidectomy are sex reassignment surgery for transgender women and palliative care for prostate cancer patients. Both simple and subscapular orchidectomies take about 30 minutes and may be performed under local or general anesthesia. On the other hand, inguinal orchidectomy may take around an hour and some patients need to undergo general anesthesia. Subcapsular orchiectomy is also often performed to treat prostate cancer; however, the glandular tissue which surrounds the testicle is the part which gets removed instead of the entire gland. This way, the appearance of the scrotum is still preserved. Inguinal orchidectomy or radical orchidectomy is done to prevent the spread of cancer when testicular cancer onset is suspected.

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