Externalization can be defined as "taking something outside of its normal boundaries." An example of this is how taking notes is an externalization of memory. Likewise, making excuses for failure is an externalization of guilt. Psychoanalytic theory holds that externalization is an unconscious defense mechanism that allows an individual to project their own faults or shortcoming onto others. For instance, externalization could occur as someone who procrastinates a lot quickly pointing out procrastination in others.