Emotional deprivation occurs when emotional attention is significantly lacking. In childhood this type of deprivation can be devastating and is presumed to be one the causes of Reactive Behavior Disorder (RAD). One of the initial studies was conducted by Dr. Rene Spitz in 1952 with documentation on the disturbing impact of emotional deprivation among orphans. Various studies have found out that this deficiency reduces the brain volume, deregulates stress hormone levels, reduces the efficiency of cognitive functions, and increases feelings of anxiety. Fortunately, such devastating effects may be reversed when children experience sufficient care and attention.