Circumcision (literally to "cut around") is an operation frequently performed on infant males shortly after birth for reasons of hygiene or religious obligation (Jewish boys are circumcised in a religious ritual that is included as a part of their naming ceremony referred as a Briss). This operation is composed of the removal of the foreskin of the penis, which is composed of smooth muscle tissue, blood vessels, neurons, skin, and mucous membrane. In recent years this operation has become controversial with many parents declining the operation on their sons' behalf.

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