Within Group Norms
Within groups, norms can be described as a test scoring method. It is the most common normative strategy for testing. This type of scoring is very common in psychological and intelligence measures.
A test is given to a group of individuals and their results are used to create a normal distribution. This distribution of scores is used as a normative group in which to compare and score people who take the test.
An example of a normal distribution is a standard IQ score in which 100 is the average score. The initial test taking sample should be a standardization sample. This means that the sample must represent the population that will be taking the test. The standardization sample must be large and representative.
To be representative it must be comprised of individuals similar to those who will be taking the test for real. If the measure is an intelligence test for children then the sample should be comprised of children. By being representative the distribution will be more accurate. Once a norm group has been tested future test takers' scores can be compared to the normative data. Percentile rank can be determined using this information. If a student scores in the 95th percentile that means that their score was higher than 95% of scores in the norm group.