Also known as scatter diagram or scatter graph, a scatterplot is a visual representation of the relationships or associations between two numerical variables, which are represented as points (or dots), each plotted at a horizontal axis (y-axis) and vertical axis (y-axis). In other words, it looks like a bunch of dots on a graph rather than lines or bars on a graph.
A scatterplot does not identify variables as dependent or independent, as any type of variable can be plotted on either axis.
The scatterplot is used to determine the three most common kinds of relationships: positive or rising, negative or falling, and no relationship. For example, in order to determine the relationship of water consumption and jogging, a researcher could select a group of participants to find out how much water is consumed (first variable plotted on y-axis) and how long has each participant has been jogging (second variable to be plotted on the x-axis). If a participant consumes 50 ounces and jogs for 45 minutes, this would be represented by one dot plotted at coordinates (50, 45).
After all the participants' dots have been plotted, the researcher can see a visual representation of the kind of relationship or association that exists between the two variables.