Microcephaly literally means "small head." It is caused by the victim's head not growing to a normal size (regarded as 2-3 standard deviations less than normal for the age group). It may be present at birth or develop as the child grows.Often victims of this disorder experience intellectual disability, poor motor function, poor speech, abnormal facial features, seizures, and dwarfism. it is usually associated with various syndromes that cause chromosomal damage. In the past, persons with this condition were exhibited in sideshows under the term "pinheads" referring to the smallness and odd shape of the skull.

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