Marxism is a group of social, political, and economic theories or doctrine which was authored by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in the mid-19th century. In the 1800s, Marx and Engels observed that many workers were exploited; people from the higher class treated their laborers harshly and unfairly. They then idealized an economic system which does not favor a particular group of individuals in the sense that the government regulates the production and market to ensure equality. In contrast with capitalism which benefits private owners, each individual works for and also profits from the society. Ideally, this society is composed of honest and hardworking people who are on an equal plane. Hence, the philosophers believed that in a perfect world, there are no socio-economic classes. Such concepts were written in Marx and Engels’s books: “The Communist Manifesto” and “Das Kapital”. This theory was later developed by supporters to form the foundation for communism (hyperlink). “Marxism” as a term was popularized by Karl Kautsky, a Czech-Austrian philosopher and journalist who claimed to be an orthodox Marxist.

Some of Marx’s quotes include:

• “The production of too many useful things results in too many useless people.” • “Religion is the opium of the people.” • “Revolutions are the locomotives of history.” • “While the miser is merely a capitalist gone mad, the capitalist is a rational miser.” • “From each according to his abilities, to each according to his needs.”

These works are still popular and widely read in the third wold and amongst radical groups,

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History of Psychology
History of Psychology