Lesbian feminism encourages strength and self-sufficiency by advocating that women channel their attraction toward other women instead of men. This cultural movement was most influential in North America and Western Europe in the 1970s and 1980s. It views lesbianism as a logical impact of feminism. This subset of feminism is generally characterized by women’s attraction towards each other, rejection of social hierarchy, critique of male dominance, the philosophy that lesbianism is about choice and resistance, and that personal issues are also political. Its beginning was traced to the reading aloud of the essay, “The Woman-Identified Woman”, by an activist group called “Radicalesbians” in 1970. This was done by 20 uninvited lesbians during a women’s conference in New York.