Juvenile-onset diabetes, also known as Type 1 diabetes or insulin dependent diabetes, often appears during childhood or adolescence (though it can develop in adulthood). The symptoms include frequent urination, bed-wetting, blurred vision, mood changes, irritability, extreme hunger, and unintended weight loss. This chronic condition is characterized by the inability of the pancreas to produce sufficient insulin, a hormone vital in facilitating the sugar absorption of cells for energy production. There is still currently no cure and treatments are mainly concerned with lifestyle changes and blood sugar levels management. The exact cause is unknown; risk factors include genetics, age (peaks at 4 to 7 years old and 10 to 14 years old), and geography (distance from the equator).