Junk science refers to research or claimed scientific information which are deemed fraudulent. For instance, the theory which suggested that global warming is merely due to solar variation was described by Jerry Mahlman, an American meteorologist, as noisy junk science. In psychology, one example of junk science is phrenology which gauges an individual’s personality through his skull’s contour.
This expression is also often used in politics regarding politically, economically, or ideologically motivated studies. In the context of litigation, Peter Huber, a Canadian lawyer and author, popularized the term with his book, “Galileo’s Revenge: Junk Science in the Courtroom” which was published in 1991.