Holoprosencephaly (HPE)

Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is a disorder which is caused by the failure of the embryonic forebrain to divide into two hemispheres. This leads to facial, skull, and brain deformities. Though most cases result in fetal death, mild cases result in normal or almost normal brain development and certain facial deformities (usually affects the eyes, nose, and upper lip). HPE has no exact causes but the risk factors include gestational diabetes, first trimester bleeding, history of miscarriage, and drug use.

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