The Experience-Sampling method is a method of thought and behavior recognition that is used in both behavioral research and in practical psychotherapy. It uses the method of asking the participant to keep records of their current thoughts and feelings on a regularly scheduled or signaled basis.
This might be done by asking the participants to record their current thoughts and emotions in response to a timer (i.e., a signal), or to ask the participant to keep a journal on a regular basis. This way the participant can learn to identify the situations and events that trigger particular thoughts and actions and learn to change their behavior.
For example: Imagine a person is dealing with the problem of overeating as a means of dealing with negative emotions. By keeping a journal and identifying the situations that lead to the negative emotions they can learn to identify and avoid, or counteract, that type of situation and thereby control their desire to overeat.