Endocarditis is also termed as infective endocarditis (IE), bacterial endocarditis (BE), fungal endocarditis, and infectious endocarditis. This is the infection of the endocardium, the inner lining of the heart chambers and valves. This disease is often caused by streptococcal or staphylococcal bacteria and it is more common among men than women. The usual cases are due to the bacteria from the mouth or respiratory tract attacking the endocardium. The symptoms may include heart murmur, fever, chest pain, coughing, muscle pain, shortness of breath, fatigue, blood in urine, unexpected weight loss, sweating, swelling abdomen or limbs, small painful red or purple lumps on fingers and/or toes, and small painless flat spots on palms or soles. If the infection cannot be treated by antibiotics, the patient has to undergo surgery.

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