Elimination disorders are characterized by inappropriate bowel movement and/or urination.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM 5) specifies the two kinds of elimination disorders: enuresis and encopresis.
The diagnostic criteria for enuresis include the voluntary or involuntary repeated urination into the individual’s clothes or bed, the voiding of urine occurs at least twice a week for 3 consecutive months or the symptoms cause significant functional impairment, and the age is at least five years old. The causes include stress, urinary tract infection, and developmental delays. The diagnostic criteria for encopresis include the voluntary or involuntary repeated inappropriate passage of feces, the frequency is at least once a month for three months, and the age is at least 4 years old. Its most common cause is chronic constipation.