Eidetic memory is a term often used interchangeably with the term photographic memory--this phenomenon is the ability to perfectly remember things heard, read, or seen even if only exposed to them briefly. Individuals who claim to have this ability can recall, in great detail, visual features of stimuli more elaborately than someone with a non-eidetic memory.
Sometimes eidetic memory and photographic memory are distinguished from one another with photographic memories being more associated with the recall of visual information such as lists and numbers. This is a rare ability and is more common in childhood, typically fading as a person grows older. Although this has not been proven scientifically (probably due to its comparative rareness) and accounts of it are largely anecdotal, persons who seem to possess this talent have a much easier time with tasks that involve mental recall.