Diabetes insipidus is a rare disease which causes body fluid imbalance. The symptoms include feeling extremely thirsty (preferring cold drinks), producing large amounts of urine, and getting up at night to urinate. Young children with this condition may present with weight loss, delayed growth, fever, vomiting, constipation, and bed-wetting.
The types of diabetes insipidus are central, nephrogenic, gestational, and dipsogenic. Central diabetes insipidus is caused by a damage to the pituitary gland or hypothalamus which leads to a dysregulated production of anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) which facilitates the amount of fluid in urine. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is caused by a defect in kidney tubules which manage the excretion and absorption of water. Gestational diabetes insipidus occurs when the placenta produces an enzyme which terminates ADH. Dipsogenic diabetes insipidus or primary polydipsia is simply caused by drinking too much water or fluids.