Diabetes is a disease caused by the body's failure or inability to regulate blood sugar levels through the secretion of insulin. It has three forms: Type 1 (juvenile-onset), Type 2 (adult-onset), and Gestational.
Type 1 is the result of the pancreas failing to secrete insulin and normally begins in childhood or young adulthood. Type 2 first appears in adulthood and is frequently the result of excess weight and/or lack of exercise. Some evidence suggests possibly a link with aging, often first appearing in middle-age.
Type 2 diabetes has been known to go into remission with weight loss and proper exercise. Gestational diabetes occurs as a side effect of pregnancy and usually disappears after childbirth. Depending on its type and severity, diabetes is treated through strict dietary control (restriction of sugars and processed carbohydrates), exercise, weight loss, medication (Metformin) and if necessary, insulin therapy (typically injections or pumps). Contrary to popular belief diabetes is not caused by excessive sugar consumption but excessive sugar consumption is linked to weight gain which does increase the risk of developing diabetes.
Recent research has focused on monitoring the AIC level (level at which glucose enters the bloodstream). An A1C level below 5.7% is considered normal, a level in between 5.7 to 6.4% indicates "pre-diabetes" and above 6.4% indicates diabetes.