D-Needs And B-Needs
Maslow's hierarchy of needs (1943) represents a famous framework for understanding the role of different psychological and physiological needs in motivating human behavior. In this model, 5 levels of needs that range from basic to complex are represented in a pyramid, with the lowest level being the most basic human needs. The needs can be divided into two classes according to their complexity.: deficiency-needs (D-needs) or being needs (B-needs).
The first four levels of the pyramid correspond to deficiency-needs (D-needs), with only the top level representing being-needs (B-needs). D-needs (physiological, safety, love, belonging, and esteem needs) are activated by deprivation and motivate the individual to pursue goals and resources to meet the needs. The motivation to fulfill these needs will increase the longer they remain denied or unsatisfied. B-needs, however, are high-level needs people are motivated to pursue to fulfill an innate desire for self-actualization, growth, and achievement of their full potential.
People must satisfy lower-level deficit-needs first before their behavior is directed toward the satisfaction of higher-level needs.