Cognitive heuristics is an umbrella term for the day-to-day decision-making strategies that everyone uses to make the best possible choices available.
For instance, one morning you try to turn on your computer and it won't boot up. So, you know to first, check your electrical connections, that the wall circuit is working, that the power strip is plugged in and powered on, that the computer's power cord is securely plugged in to the machine as well as the power strip, that the power strip is turned on and working, and that the monitor is securely plugged in and turned on. If all of these steps are checked out and it still doesn't work it might be time to call customer support. Basically, remembering this power check heuristic can save a lot of frustration and service calls.