Cloninger’s Psychobiological Model Of Personality
Cloninger’s Psychobiological Model of Personality depicts four temperamental dimensions (harm avoidance, novelty seeking, reward dependence, and persistence) which are heritable and the three are linked with certain neurotransmitters and three character dimensions (self-directedness, cooperativeness, and self-transcendence).
The temperament of harm avoidance is linked with serotonin; it is described as the avoidance of and the sensitivity towards punishment.
Novelty seeking is linked with dopamine; it is the tendency to feel excitement regarding possibilities of reward or relief from punishing stimuli.
Reward dependence is linked with norepinephrine; the propensity to respond to social approval and other positive signals.
Persistence is the inclination to keep on with a task despite fatigue, frustration, and related negative sates.
As for the dimensions of character, self-directedness is the extent of being resourceful and goal-oriented; cooperativeness is the degree of relating well with other individuals; and self-transcendence is the extent of achieving a connection with a supreme Being and humanity. This was developed by Claude Robert Cloninger, an American geneticist, psychiatrist, and professor.