Cephalocaudal development describes the general growth pattern of organisms to develop areas near the main neural area (typically the head) earlier than areas of the body that are more distant.
This can be seen in human fetuses where the head is the first body part formed. Once the body is formed the hands develop before feet. 'Cephalo' is used to describe things related to the head and brain while the term 'caudal' is used to describe the body. So, cephalocaudal development can mean head-body development in which the head develops first.