Binswanger’s Disease (BD)
Binswanger’s disease (BD), also termed as arteriosclerotic encephalopathy (SAE) and subcortical leukoencephalopathy, was first described by Dr. Otto Binswanger in 1984 while Alois Alzheimer first utilized the phrase “Binswanger’s disease” in 1902. BD is a progressive neurological disorder caused by microscopic but widespread damages to the brain’s white matter and deep structures such as the basal ganglia and thalamus. This occurs when the blood vessels that supply the deep structures and layers of the brain become blocked. This blockage eventually causes the brain tissues to die from low blood nourishment. Hence, the main symptom is a decline in cognitive function such as poor short-term memory, inefficient organization, inability to make good decisions, and less spontaneous communication. Also, individuals with BD may exhibit unsteady pattern of walking, incontinence (over a 5-10-year-period), and difficulty in swallowing.