Beyondism is a controversial scientific pseudo-religion which promotes evolution as vital in achieving growth for humanity. This view is perceived as racist since it promotes competition between races and believes that “superior” civilizations should be allowed to thrive at the expense of “inferior” ones. This belief was proposed by Raymond Cattell, an American psychologist, who argued that racial solidarity is highly significant in the progress of humankind. He described beyondism as a "new morality from science". Cattell was also an advocate of National Socialism and Nazi racial theories.