Anesthesia is a term that encompasses the medical field of pain management and control.
The general categories of anesthesia are "general" anesthesia that renders a patient unconscious, "local" anesthesia that deadens skin sensations, and "sedation" that causes physical relaxation and causes amnesia.
Anesthesia refers to the use of medications that cause an individual to sleep or be unconscious during medical procedures (as during surgery) or to deaden pain responses during procedures (as in dentistry). Lastly, there is sedation that causes relaxation in the patient and the minimizing of pain responses.
An anesthesiologist uses a combination of medications that are used induce unconsciousness, deaden pain responses, cause paralysis, and induce amnesia as is appropriate to the operation or procedure that is being carried out. ,