Albinism is a rare congenital condition that results in a person or animal's birth with a partial or complete lack of pigmentation. This causes the person or animal to be born with completely white hair (or feathers) and skin with eyes that are either red or pale blue. Biologically this is due to absence or defect of tyrosinase, a copper-containing enzyme involved in the production of melanin (the enzyme that controls pigmentation).
A subject with complete albinism is called an albino, individuals who have only a partial lack of pigmentation is referred to as leucystic or albinoid. Albinism is often associated with visual problems such as photophobia, nystagmus, and amblyopia. It also causes a greater susceptibility to skin conditions like sunburn and skin cancers. In some cultures albinos are considered to have magical or healing properties and unfortunately sometimes suffer abuse or are even murdered for their body parts.