Albert Bandura (1925 - ) is best known for his Social Learning Theory, which states learning happens by observing others and modeling their behaviors.
According to Social Learning Theory, If we see that other people get desirable outcomes by behaving in a certain manner, then we are more likely to behave in a similar way. According to Bandura, Social Learning occurs from a combination of environmental and psychological factors.
Social behavior is also influenced, according to this theory, by being rewarded and/or punished for these actions. For example, if a child sees his older brother bring home a good report card and he gets a great reward for it, the child may observe this, see the older brother get rewarded, and then learn that having a good report card will get rewarded so he should do it too.
Bandura is also known for his work on Self-Efficacy, which refers to one's belief that he is capable of successfully performing a certain task to meet a goal.